And whoever said the gods were fair?
Old Zeus sends a dream to Agamemnon that takes on the appearance of Nestor. Good news! Attack the Trojans, and you’ll be victorious!
On reading this section, I was reminded of the time when as a young boy I decided to read the Bible. Neither my family nor I were religious. It was more out of curiosity than the feeling my soul was in jeopardy.
The only Bible available was the one that sat unread on a shelf in my parents’ closet. It was very old, and the pages were brittle. I started with Matthew. Unfortunately, I was unable to get past all the names to line 18 where the story actually begins. If you think that’s bad, I challenge anyone to read Chapter One of First Chronicles and enjoy it. One reads dreaming of an oasis, each name another sand dune. When you encounter, “he began to be mighty upon the earth” or “in his days the earth was divided” it as if you’ve found a resting place and fresh cool water and shade. I had nearly the same feeling reading this section of Book 2 and seeing:
“…he stood in their midst,
preeminent, splendid in armor of gleaming bronze,
the greatest of leaders.” (2.540-542)
It started off briliantly, and I was certain it was going to be a glorious replay of Book 1. But then a little after the halfway point came The Catalogue of Ships.
Here are a few lines from the first part:
“And as the west wind sweeps through the high-standing grain
with its violent blast, and the ears all shudder and bow:
just so was the army shaken, and in the uproar
men rushed toward the shore, and the dust from beneath their feet
rose high and hung in the air.”
What struck me most about Book 1 was that Achilles would have killed Agamemnon had Athena not intervened (1.195-205), and later Nestor telling Achilles not to defy the king as he was his superior and that Zeus had granted his kingship. (1.276-281)
Was Nestor’s view of kingship granted by Zeus the prevailing one?
How rigid was the social order?
It is told so clearly that even someone not familiar with the storyline would have little difficulty. The language is superb and the words flow so readily it was as if I were reading Wordsworth’s The Prelude.
Thetis says to her son Achilles:
“If only you could have stayed by the ships, without tears,
without pain, since your life is destined to be so short.
Not only must you die young, but your fleeting days
are doomed to be full of sorrow beyond all others.”
Mitchell’s insight that we all bring something of ourselves and our own experiences to a poem is an important one. How else is it possible to understand such widely divergent opinions as Simone Weil who saw the Iliad as an indictment of war and of Alexander the Great who said it was “a treasury of military virtue?”
In Ancient Athens we are told, readings of the Iliad drew enormous crowds (20,000!) from all walks of life.
I loved the excerpts from the poem he quotes, which give us an idea of Homer’s masterful use of language and “points to the pleasure we find everywhere in the poem.” If the quality is such throughout, this is going to be one wonderful experience.
Consider these two:
“As, in the night sky, around the light of the moon,
the stars emerge, when the air is serene and windless,
and the stars shine bright, and the heart of the shepherd rejoices:”
“and his head drooped, like a poppy in a spring garden
weighed down with seeds and a heavy rain: so his head
leaned to one side beneath the weight of his helmet.”
I’ll admit it’s important. However, I also know arriving at the best text is an extremely complicated matter. Seeing I’m not a classicist, am not able to read the Iliad in Greek, and know nothing about the texts under consideration, I will just have to plead ignorance.
Knowing that the earliest full text of the New Testament dates to the 4th century AD, I was very surprised to learn that for the Iliad (Venetus A) it is the 10th century AD.
I really liked what Mitchell says in his Introduction:
“I am under no illusion that I have translated the original text of the Iliad, as written or dictated by the anonymous poet called Homer-just the most intelligent attempt we have at getting back to an original, and a text that I could use as the basis for the most intense possible poetic experience in English.”
To begin, consider these two entries from Wikipedia:
“Sense-for-sense translation…fundamentally means translating the meaning of each whole sentence before moving on to the next, and stands in normative opposition to word-for-word translation (also known as literal translation), which means translating the meaning of each lexical item in sequence.”
“Dynamic and formal equivalence are terms for methods of translation coined by Eugene Nida. The two terms have often been understood as fundamentally the same as sense-for-sense translation (translating the meanings of phrases or whole sentences) and word-for-word translation (translating the meanings of individual words in their more or less exact syntactic sequence), respectively, and Nida did often seem to use them this way. But his original definition of dynamic equivalence was rhetorical: the idea was that the translator should translate so that the effect of the translation on the target reader is roughly the same as the effect of the source text once was on the source reader.”
Having recently completed Gershom Scholem’s monumental work on Sabbatai Sevi, I think I can safely begin.
Scholem’s introduction to the Sabbatian movement was 102 pages long. Well done, I say. I’ve always thought trying to get proper bearings was necessary before setting sail, which is what I’ll be trying to do. I know the analogy is better suited to The Odyssey but always having had a strong pacifistic streak, I feel a little awkward saying sharpening my swords – unless, of course, they’re being made into plowshares, which I am pretty sure is not the case in The Iliad.
One of the two mentors I was fortunate to study under was a translator. For a while, I played with the idea of becoming one myself. I’ve always been fascinated by translation – the give and take – something added, something lost – the delicate balance necessary to pull it off.
Why such talk? For those who don’t remember, a number of us agreed to read the new Stephen Mitchell translation of The Iliad. Unfortunately, as fate (that’s what I’m calling it anyway) would have it, I ordered the wrong copy and the right one took forever to arrive in my little neck of the woods. In fact, it just got here. Everyone is so far ahead that even if I decided to stop working, and read night and day I would still not be able to catch up. If I were a speed reader it might help, but I can assure you I’m not, and have, in fact, always found the notion of speed and read in the same sentence let alone combined into one word nothing short of sacrilegious.
I have, however, been keeping myself up to date with their posts, and hopefully, through their insights I’ll be better able to appreciate the work.
But in order to do it justice I’ll first finish the books I’m reading as well as one I haven’t started but have had my eyes on. I also really do need to get working again on my second novel, which possibly might come out this year seeing that it’s about 70% finished – like the last one it was started long, long ago…
The idea is to immerse myself in The Iliad, post on it, and perhaps related subjects – depending on if and when the spirit moves.
I claim absolutely no expertise – just an immense love and respect for the written word.
For those who are planning to read The Iliad, please do not make the same mistake that I did, and get the wrong version!
They both have the same cover but the one everyone else is reading is The Iliad: (The Stephen Mitchell Translation) by Homer and Stephen Mitchell while I mistakenly got The Iliad by Homer and Stephen Mitchell.
I’ve just discovered that a Kindle edition isn’t available to me, so that means I’m going to have to wait. I have the idea everyone will have finished, and I’ll have only just begun.
I received an email allegedly from a well-known mobile phone company on Tuesday, whose name will remain undisclosed, and while I’m not sure they actually did send it, considering the number of text messages and calls we receive desperately pleading with us that we are losing out, one does have to wonder.
Yesterday, I finally got round to ordering The Iliad in Kindle format.
Last night, while running an anti-virus scan, what should I discover but….a Backdoor.Trojan. Yes, from the email I had received but deleted.
In case you’re interested, there are a number of us who are going to be reading The Iliad, and posting and commenting on it as we see fit.
I’ll be the first to admit I’m not a scholar though I do have great respect for those who are. My idea is just to begin posting impressions of it as and if they come.